Canada, Department of National Defence (DND), “Pledges,” 2017 UN Peacekeeping Defence Ministerial, Vancouver,

Canada, Department of National Defence (DND), Directorate of History and Heritage (DHH), 

Canada, Department of National Defence (DND),”Minister Sajjan Reaffirms Peace Operations Pledge at UN Defence Ministerial,” (quote: “Canada stands ready to deploy up to 600 Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel for future UN peace operations.”), 8 September 2016.

Canada, House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, “Canada’s Role in International Peace Operations and Conflict Resolution,” 2019 (pdf, 2 MB) (Fr: pdf)

Canada, Prime Minister, “Canada bolsters peacekeeping and civilian protection measures,” News Release, 15 November 2017,

Canada, Privy Council, “Mandate Letter Tracker: Delivering results for Canadians,”, accessed 8 February 2018.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, “Canada offering 200 ground troops for future UN peacekeeping operations,”, 15 November 2017. Trudeau Quote from Ministerial (15 November 2017): “We are making all these pledges today, because we believe in the United Nations and we believe in peacekeeping,” he said. “What we will do is step up and make the contributions we are uniquely able to provide.”, “Peacekeeping,”

Dorn, A. Walter and Joshua Libben, “Preparing for peace: Myths and realities of Canadian peacekeeping training,” International Journal, Vol. 73, Iss. 2, pp. 257-281 (26 July 2018) (htmlpdf). (Longer 2016 Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) and the Rideau Institute report: htmlpdf)

Durch, William J., The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis, St Martin’s Press, New York, 1993.

Sajjan, Harjit (Defence Minister), Address to the UN Security Council, 28 March 2018, video at, 42:00-51:44.

Trudeau, Justin (Prime Minister), Minister of National Defence Mandate Letter (12 November 2015), html

Trudeau, Justin (Prime Minister), Minister of National Defence Mandate Letter (13 December 2019),

Trudeau, Justin (Prime Minister), Minister of Foreign Affairs (update of 1 February 2017), html

Trudeau, Justin (Prime Minister), Minister of Foreign Affairs (13 December 2019),

United Kingdom, “UN Peacekeeping Defence Ministerial: London 2016,” Final Report (pdf).

United Kingdom, “UN Peacekeeping Ministerial – pledge slides (PPT)” (pdf),

United Nations (UN), “Troop and Police Contributors,”

United Nations (UN), Department of Peacekeeping Operations / Department of Field Support, “Current and Emerging Uniformed Capability Requirements for United Nations Peacekeeping,” issued periodically, including December 2016 (pdf), May 2017 (pdf) and August 2017 (pdf).

United Nations (UN), Department of Public Information (DPI), The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping, 2nd ed.. (New York, N.Y.), United Nations, 1992.

World Federalist Movement – Canada, “Canadians for Peacekeeping”, (includes a copy of this page at

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